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Overview
An accessory navicular bone is an accessory bone of the foot that occasionally develops abnormally causing a plantar medial enlargement of the navicular. The accssory navicular bone presents as a sesamoid in the posterior tibial tendon, in articulation with the navicular or as an enlargment of the navicular. Navicular (boat shaped) is an intermediate tarsal bone on the medial side of the foot. It is located on the medial side of the foot, and articulates proximally with the talus. Distally it articulates with the three cuneiform bones. In some cases it articulates laterally with the cuboid. The tibialis posterior inserts to the os naviculare. The tibialis posterior muscle also contracts to produce inversion of the foot and assists in the plantar flexion of the foot at the ankle. Tibialis posterior also has a major role in supporting the medial arch of the foot. This supports is compromised by abnormal insertion of the tendon into the accessory navicular bone when present. This lead to loss of suspension of tibialis posterior tendon and may cause peroneal spastic pes planus or simple pes planus. But, yet a cause and effect relationship between the accessory navicular and pes planus is doubtful and is yet unproved clearly.

Accessory Navicular

Causes
This painful foot condition is caused by an extra bone in the foot called the accessory navicular. Only about 10% of people have this bone (4 to 21%), and not all of them will develop any symptoms. The navicular bone is one of the normal tarsal bones of the foot. It is located on the inside of the foot, at the arch.

Symptoms
Perhaps the most common of the extra bones in the foot, the accessory navicular bone is estimated to be present in 7 to 19 percent of the population. Zadek and Gold maintained that the bone persisted as a distinct, separate bone in 2 percent of the population. Also be aware that the accessory bone normally fuses completely or incompletely to the navicular. It is this incomplete fusion which allows for micromotion, which, in turn, may cause degenerative changes that can also contribute to the pain.

Diagnosis
Diagnosis starts by speaking with the patient about symptoms. The physician will look at the foot and examine it for signs of an accessory navicular. By putting pressure on the area, the doctor may determine its presence simply by the presence of pain. The muscle, joint, and the overall structure of the foot may be considered, as well as the way in which the patient walks. If a diagnosis of accessory navicular syndrome is made, an X-ray or MRI may be ordered to confirm diagnosis.

Non Surgical Treatment
Treatment of the accessory navicular begins with rest, which may include activity modification or temporary immobilization in a boot or a brace. Once the inflammation subsides the foot needs to be supported. The support consists of a specially designed orthotic arch support. Occasionally, the orthotic will dig into the edge of the accessory navicular bone under the arch of the foot. This is very uncomfortable. For this reason the orthotic support needs to be carefully made. The orthotic support will help control (but not cure) the flat foot and will often decrease the inflammation on the navicular.

Accessory Navicular

Surgical Treatment
If non-surgical treatment fails to relieve the symptoms of accessory navicular syndrome, surgery may be appropriate. Surgery may involve removing the accessory bone, reshaping the area, and repairing the posterior tibial tendon to improve its function. This extra bone is How long do you grow during puberty? not needed for normal foot function.

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تاريخ : سه شنبه 7 شهريور 1396 | 16:58 | نویسنده : Alfonso Glowacki |